Monday, 19 August 2013

Diseases of the Horse

Diseases of Horse
A healthy animal to be working fine, they are not in top condition, performance decreases.
The horse may have mild infections or bone disorders, such is the case of the peak, however, is able to perform the tasks. But we must always be aware of the animal, even if it can fulfill its tasks, not suffer.
This can help you know if your horse is healthy or sick:
Perform this simple test will help you know if your horse is healthy or have a disease.

The horse is healthy if:
  1. Horse eyes are clean and bright. 
  2. The horse will eat all the food ration and non-stop. 
  3. has a pulse between 35 and 42 beats per minute at rest. 
  4. Their urine is clear or pale yellow. 
  5. limbs In no inflammation and temperature of these is less than the leather. 
  6. has a temperature of about 38° C. 
  7. Breathing at rest is 8 to 12 breaths per minute, with no abruptness or effort. 
  8. shiny hair without hair fall excessive. Maintains strong support on all fours and does not limp.
The horse is sick if:
  1. Horse looks sad, tired and gloom. 
  2. shows pale eyes expressionless or cry. 
  3. has a dull coat or excessive hair fall. 
  4. lying or is maintained long romps no apparent reason. 
  5. If the touching note that reacts with pain or have any inflamed area. 
  6. limps or has the town in disrepair. 
  7. If you remove the bed, this restless, or sweat excessively.
These symptoms are indicative, remember that in case of doubt, it is always best to call your veterinarian is the only one who can know if you really are sick and the most appropriate treatment to be followed by the horse.
Disease is the situation in which alters the structure of the body.
This alteration has a cause (etiology), with a cycle of evolution and restoration (pathogenic), the outcome (prognosis) and means of treatment or control, criteria that are applicable to all kinds of conditions, being able to subdivisions, when doubts arise about the various origins of the condition. If any of these symptoms it is vital to call the vet:

When to call the vet:
It is very important to know when we have to call the vet, and if any of these symptoms is vital:
  1. The horse has a temperature above 38° C. 
  2. Present pain symptoms evident in some area of your body. 
  3. If you have bleeding profusely or have injuries and / or major cuts. 
  4. If saliva in abundance (without making physical effort). 
  5. This can be a symptom of having eaten some noxious or poisonous boil or have any object stuck in his mouth.
If wobbles when walking can also be a symptom of poisoning. If it appears that attempts to vomit (arching the neck and back and makes efforts to tummy muscles).
These symptoms are indicative, remember that in case of doubt, it is always best to call your veterinarian is the only one who can know if you really are sick and the most appropriate treatment to be followed by the horse.

Genitalia Disease
Mare: The genital organs consist mare ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, vulva and mammary glands.
The primary diseases of these organs are relatively rare, but secondary disorders are common, such as ovarian tumors and uterine infections by Klebsiella or Pseudomonas species, or coital exanthema.
Uterine infections by streptococci and other bacteria appear when forming abnormalities of the vulva and perineum, which facilitate entry of air through the genital tract.

The best-known cases as inflammation of the mammary glands are quite scarce as it is not common practice artificial milking mares, being more common in cows.
It occurs most frequently in infertile mares, which are raising a foal and they have stopped recently.
The older mares a year and even those who do not reach this age may also be affected.
In most cases, it swells and becomes painful half udder discomfort when gravity may occur in the hind limp. Producing bulky swelling in the front of the gland or in an upward direction in the area between the hind legs. Mastitis cases can be treated by antibiotics by intramuscular.

Main types of diseases:
  1. Diseases Infertility pregnancy. 
  2. pony stallion newborn diseases. 
  3. Diseases pony during the first two years of life.
Infertility. It is characterized by a relative reduction in reproductive activity in relation to expected results, its origin can be traced to the mare or stallion. The pathological definition, is one that remains difficult for the mare in foal, due to a slight infection of the uterus, or perhaps a decrease in male semen quality, preventing conception.

Sterility. consists of a complete inability to conceive, is produced by chromosomal abnormalities, senility, uterine disorders indurativos, blocking the Fallopian tubes or ovarian tumors.

Stallion Infertility. It can be temporary is sometimes caused by slight injuries can become permanent.
Symptoms range from a decrease in libido (reduced erectile capacity, actual entry or ejaculating penis, riding the horse) or manifestations of the existence of poor semen quality (i.e low sperm count, low motility).
As occurs in the mare, the stallion may be infertile in some circumstances, as in the case where it is subjected to excessive work, or care is minimal, which does not occur if management is in top condition. Most of the studs should be able to produce 70% of pregnancies in a group of 40 mares, at a rate of 2.5 per intercourse mare coupling each season.

All production levels below these rates are possible, when an individual is unable to stop pregnant at least one of all mares presented, is said to be barren. However, for practical purposes, be considered completely infertile at stud who cannot achieve a fertility rate of over 20%.

Diseases of pregnancy. mare's gestation lasts 320 to 360 days.
The births between 300 and 320 days are considered premature: as they present smallness, weakness, and difficulty surviving. Those born with less than 300 days are considered abortions and have no chance of life.
Possible causes an abortion are present ranging from bacterial, viral or fungal.The infection-causing microbes attack the placenta and / or fetal organs, destroying their ability to live and develop normally.
Of the non-infectious causes of abortion do not have much information, some are caused by genetic disorders, hormonal, immunological, or circulation, however, there is no detailed knowledge of the subject, we can only theoretical information for diagnosis.

Currently, there is only one form of an epidemic nature of abortion;
Which is produced by equine herpes virus type 1., This virus attacks the respiratory system, the cause which produces abortions in cases concerning unknown. It occurs most often from the 7th to the 9th month of pregnancy, it can sometimes occur later, even near the end of pregnancy. Often spontaneous, with no prior breast development, fetal membranes expelled with the fetus, or a little later.

The signs have foals born in the near future at the end of gestation show theoretical septicemia (increasing weakness) dying before completing the four days from birth. In which case, the mare has a normal breast development with the presence of colostrum in the udder.

Non-infectious causes is the existence of twins, which is the most common.The mare placental covers the entire inner surface of the uterus, and therefore the capacity is multiple as to the attachment area to be two fetuses. There are three types of situations that can result in twins equal or unequal sizes. In most cases, one of the two dies, resulting in the expulsion of both as abortion, between the 7th and 9th months of pregnancy.
The mycotic abortion is caused by fungi, is known as the most frequently appearing in the 9th month. Is that the placenta is thickened, producing a dense, brownish exudate on the surface.

The fungus that produces it is spreading gradually around the area and is gradually destroying placental tissue, causing fetal malnutrition causing thinning, abortion occurs as it weakens or dies the fetus and thus, causing the expulsion the uterus. But the factors capable of producing this type of disorder may occur after the first 300 days of gestation, in which case, the Colts are premature, although born at the end, come to suffer conditions such as septicemia or weakness, reducing their chances of living out the womb.

Stallion. The bodies are made up of testes, epididymis,  accessory glands, scrotum and penis in your deck. Primary alterations, which consist of testicular tumors or infections caused by Klebsiella species, are rare.
The stallion can suffer rash sack which is a sexually transmitted infection caused by viruses, and contracted to perform intercourse with infected mare, is characterized by the development of the penis of tiny vesicles that rupture and result in small ulcers. It is necessary that the animal remains in rest for ten days, to produce healing. Otherwise, the ulcers may coalesce and lead to severe pain.

The external genitalia are more prone to injury, because the act of intercourse is controlled by man and there is the risk that a mare is not in the appropriate phase of zeal resist the stallion. The most frequent injuries are penile hematoma, although they can appear on the scrotum blows, causing swelling, for recovery requires long periods of rest.

Diseases of the newborn foal. The first four days after birth are called neonatal period, since this is the time in establishing the most important adjustments except those related to food, which enable the foal to lead an independent existence of the mare. During this period, also begin to show symptoms of the disease characteristics of this stage. As we have seen, many of these disorders have their origin in the womb.
Neonatal diseases are divided into four groups, of which the last three are of noninfectious cause:

Group 1: infections caused by bacteria or viruses. Presenting symptoms are loss sucking reflex gradual, progressive weakness and inability to take suction position. May culminate in a state of coma, convulsions, etc. to death.

Group 2: disorientation syndrome neonatal (SDN) which is manifested by significant behavioral disorders. These include seizures, loss of sucking reflex and inability to recognize and follow the mother.
The older terminology affected foals referred to in different ways. The disorder is associated with brain injury caused by hemorrhage or edema, this leads to severe respiratory disorders as biochemical or side effects due to altered behavior and metabolic status.

Group 3: anatomic abnormalities, cleft palate, parrot mouth, tendon contractures, bladder rupture and various deformities of the head, body or members can be inherited or develop because of abnormal fetal growth are attributed to viral infections, poor nutrition or drug administration. However, specific data are lacking on the subject, which means that, currently, the etiology of equine anatomical aspects are under study.

Group 4: immune hemolytic jaundice newborn foal. Disease characterized by the destruction of erythrocytes strong pony by the action of antibodies that receives's colostrum produced by the mare.
Antibodies are substances that anti-red blood cells form in the bloodstream of the mare, as a result of heredity which is located in the erythrocytes of the foal. Some fetal red blood cells cross the placenta and enter the circulation of the mare during the fetal development stage, acting similarly to a vaccine, stimulating maternal tissues to produce a specific antibody against horse red blood cells.

Antibodies in colostrum are grouped together with those having a protective nature, and are absorbed through the small intestine, immediately after the first food intake following childbirth.
The foal develops jaundice that grows progressively increases heart rate and breathing rate during exercise, in most cases, the colt dies in the first three days.

If detected early the disorder can be prevented by avoiding ingestion of colostrum within the first 24 hours of life, a period during which the foal is placed a muzzle and is given colostrum from another mare, then will be fed with artificial milk. If convenient to suck the milk of its own mother after a period of 24 hours, as the small intestine has lost the ability to absorb the antibody.

Meconium colic, which is produced by digestive disturbances in the passage of the first excrement is a relatively simple alteration, which is included in group 2. The treatment of neonatal conditions which are mostly symptomatic, as in the case of the inability to get through the help of assistants and general care, such inability to get to suck forced to bottle feed the foal, the lack sucking reflex which is solved by feeding the horse; inability to maintain body temperature, warming the animal's manger, and dehydration, with intravenous fluid therapy and transfusions of whole blood or plasma.

Specific treatment comprises administering antibiotics against infections, surgical correction of the ruptured bladder and transfusion of red blood cells in the cases of hemolytic jaundice.